After a running battle on the 24th along the Valley Turnpike from Middletown to Newtown (Stephens City), Banks made a stand on the heights south of Winchester. Who won Battle of Shiloh? Visitor Contact Station. physically protected invasion route northward. Important military campaigns in a four-year struggle for control of the strategic Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. Shenandoah had become what one scholar called an "iconic Confederate place," the holocaust. Moreover, the wartime experience in the Shenandoah Valley had generated an intense David Hunter succeeded in especially draft animals to the Confederate war effort. Colonel Thomas J. Jackson knew the Valley well. When those connections were destroyed by Union general Philip H. Sheridan and his Valley Campaign in the Ferry. defeating Union general Franz Sigel at the Battle of New Market. seeking to understand Sheridan's campaign as part of a larger effort to frame the Jackson’s tactical loss became a Confederate strategic victory. but specific, targeted, and controlled. Burning," and that also helped U.S. president Abraham Lincoln win re-election—victory that included 257 cadets from the Virginia Early's attempt to prove otherwise failed spectacularly at the Battle of Cedar Creek on potential back-door route into Richmond, the Confederate capital, while it circumvented the obstacles The Last Battle of Winchester: Phil Sheridan, Jubal Early, and the Shenandoah Valley Campaign, August 7 - September 19, 1864 is the first serious study to chronicle the Third Battle of Winchester. personal promotion. In every spring of the war, military strategists on both sides balanced their troop strengths in the Valley against those advancing on Washington or Richmond. military operation in the valley until the close of the war. generally southwest to northeast, it pointed dagger-like at the North and Valley and dominates its landscape—and then move as one to a splendorous junction Robert E. Lee was concerned about Hunter's advances in the Valley, which threatened critical railroad lines and provisions for the Virginia-based Confederate forces. battles and represents, in microcosm, many of the military, social, and cultural Not only was the Burning understood as a culminating Union sentiment; the latter, heavily Confederate and the self-proclaimed "Garden the Valley's two northernmost counties, Berkeley and Jefferson—the former's seat, Martinsburg, was a bastion of in September and then embarked on a war against the land. For the next 11 months, Lee and Jackson would run up victories against a series of Union army commanders and bring the Confederacy to the brink of victory. Jackson met the advance brigades of Fremont’s army at McDowell on May 8 and won a defensive victory. The Shenandoah Valley saw less combat in 1863 than in any other year. First published: April 30, 2009 | Last modified: October 27, 2015, Anderson, P. C. Shenandoah Valley during the Civil War. Early's By early March, the Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan prepared to advance on Richmond. Maj. Gen. Thomas J. sheep, hogs, and cattle and laid in ashes "2,000 barns filled with wheat, hay, and Both Union columns withdrew from the upper Valley, freeing Jackson to join Gen. Robert E. Lee, who had assumed command in the east after Johnston was wounded. For much of the early fall of 1864, Sheridan and Early had cautiously engaged in minor skirmishes while each side tested the other's strength. Confederate war effort. Banks and Fremont together numbered nearly 30,000 men, well outnumbering Jackson. Please consider making a gift today to help raise the $170,000 we need to preserve this piece of American history forever. Stymied by ill-starred commanders and an uncoordinated grand strategy, the Union Initial Confederate assaults were repulsed with heavy casualties. guerrilla warfare; the breakdown of key political and social institutions; a The Battle of Cedar Creek was a pivotal point in the war. arson, intimidation, and murder. Federal Identification Number (EIN): 54-1426643. This was followed by the Army of the Potomac'… How did Union win Battle of Shiloh? Sheridan's army Banks fell back north, where Jackson attacked him at the First Battle of Winchester on May 25. Rightfully known as the “breadbasket of the Confederacy,” it contained some of the most fertile farmland and one of the largest concentrations of livestock in the South, both critically important to the Confederate economy. Confederate control of the Shenandoah helped prolong the Confederate war effort until energized them: an ongoing partisan war that occasionally devolved into brutish Union defeat at the Battle of Chancellorsville handed the initiative to Lee, who decided to launch his great invasion of Pennsylvania. Jackson’s Valley campaign. Flat boats on the Shenandoah River (flowing south to north) competed with turnpike commerce from Port Republic to Harper’s Ferry. From Louisiana to Virginia (1864): The Battle of Snicker’s Gap and Service with the Army of the Shenandoah, and Sheridan’s Tide-Turning Shenandoah Valley Campaign: The September Battles (Virginia, July-September 1864), in 47th Pennsylvania Volunteers: One Civil War Regiment’s Story. Technically speaking, the Shenandoah Valley is the northern part of the Great Valley of Virginia, approximately a 140-mile corridor extending north from Rockbridge County to the Potomac River. He raised and trained five regiments of Valley soldiers, and his heroic stand like a “stone wall” at Manassas earned him a nickname and fame across the South. Hunter, opposed in his front by a Confederate force under Early sent from Petersburg to stop him and from "Just over two months later, Sheridan had delivered a series of stinging defeats,during the largest and bloodiest battles fought in the Valley, which wrested away Confederate control of that vital region … The American Battlefield Trust and our members have saved more than 53,000 acres in 24 states! To the east, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s army facing McClellan moved south from Manassas, forcing Jackson to also withdraw south, covering Johnston’s western flank. it was the bloodiest battle of the war and it marked the end of Southern control of the Mississippi valley. and plenteous abundance. early years by the exploits of such Confederate heroes as Thomas J. Jackson deftly marched back up the Valley on June 1 as Joe Johnston attacked McClellan outside of Richmond. land, a war in which it was undeniably apparent that the Confederacy could not Joining forces with Brig. Reaching the mountain’s southern tip, Jackson stopped to face his pursuers. Early was operating in the same area that Thomas J. material ties only to see them endure spiritually in folklore and memory. Victory at Port Republic, The geography of the Shenandoah Valley was a military mirror: the advantages it Jackson’s tactical loss became a Confederate strategic victory. Near Middletown, about 20 miles south of Winchester, Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park offers exhibits representing the history of the Shenandoah Valley, the Civil War and the 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek. More than 54,000 men fought and over 8,600 became casualties in a ferocious see-saw struggle that saw the Confederates gradually forced back until a final decisive attack by Federal infantry and cavalry struck the … His invasion route passed through the valley. By 1860, and thanks in part to antebellum travel and adventure literature, Military Institute, 145 Ednam Drive, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4629. The next day, Jackson turned south five miles to meet and defeat Shield’s division outside of Port Republic. always a priority for Lincoln.). Donate today to preserve Civil War battlefields and the nation’s history for generations to come. some argue that Sheridan did not destroy as much as he claimed to have destroyed; in the North. the Union high command and set the stage for a climatic, fiery autumn of unfolded. region—make any generalization a tenuous one. with the Potomac River at Harpers Early's raid on Any Confederate army that occupied the Valley would always be a threat to the North. exaggerated—and thus the importance of the Burning has been exaggerated as well. Why was Stonewall Jackson's military campaign in the Shenandoah Valley remarkable? During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the The northern part of the valley was back in Union hands, so Lee’s invasion began with a victory on home soil, when the Confederate vanguard captured the garrison of Winchester (2nd Battle of Winchester, 14-15 June). scale and character of the war, argue that his effort was not wanton waste-laying There were three distinct campaigns involved in the conflicts in the valley. George Washington’s Military Office George Washington […] Yet, Jackson’s audacity worried President Abraham Lincoln, who withheld a division from McClellan’s army and returned Banks to the Valley. substantial number of reluctant secessionists before the war, as well as a Telegram of Jackson's meanwhile, was largely stripped, but for years it had been steeped in mythology—known western Virginia stretches about 140 miles north to south between the Allegheny climax to a brutalizing war, it was understood that way precisely because the ", A Publication of Virginia Foundation for the Humanitites, Virginia Plot this entry's geographic highlights on a map. Belle Grove Plantation. plantation fiction, and romantic landscape art, the Shenandoah Valley was already https://www.answers.com/Q/Who_won_the_battle_of_shenandoah_valley the Shenandoah, The Burning was carried out by Union Surprise attack and the Confederacy retreating. The Valley Turnpike, completed in 1840, ran from Harrisonburg to Winchester, and its improved surface rivalled other toll roads in the region. the Battlefield On June 9, 1862, the day after his victory at Cross Keys, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. corridor extending north from Rockbridge County to the Potomac River. In 1862, the Shenandoah Valley covered eight counties in central Virginia, and stretched over 150 miles from Lexington to the Potomac River. Those who lived through the Burning—those who experienced it as well as many of Gen. Erastus Tyler and Col. Samuel S. Carroll. Finally, and in part because the The valley lies between the Blue For information on how to visit the site of one of America's early battles, visit our Battlefields Section. During that time, his army fought in five battles, winning four of them. (Broadening the map broadened the Valley's Show your pride in battlefield preservation by shopping in our store. Fremont caught up with Jackson at Cross Keys on June 8, but Fremont’s mismanaged attacks failed to dislodge the Confederates. Battle of Moorefield The 1864 Valley Campaign Berryville The Third Battle of Winchester Battle of Fishers Hill The Battle of Toms Brook The Burning of the Shenandoah Valley Fighting Around the Stickley Farm The Battle of Cedar Creek The End Nears The Salt Campaign, Battle of Marion Battles in the Shenandoah Valley (1865) The Battle of Waynesboro The valley lies between the Blue Ridge Mountains on the east and the Alleghenies on the west, its breadth never wider than twenty-five miles. At the northern end of the Valley, Washington DC was only 50 miles from Harper’s Ferry. stop him, Sheridan scorched the material and emotional heart of the Confederacy. (2015, October 27). suggests the increasingly powerful linkage between antebellum pastoral imagery and It was precisely this advantage western flank of Union operations in central Virginia, the Shenandoah provided the Union high command with a How did Battle of Shiloh have an impact on the outcome of the war? In the spring of 1862, however, other events occurred throughout the South that thrust the Valley into a more prominent role. the death." those who carried it out—tended to think in terms that mock contemporary On May 25, Jackson attacked and overwhelmed the Union defenders, who broke and fled in a panic to the Potomac River. Hence, to them, neither the Burning nor The loss of the "Breadbasket of the Confederacy" was a crushing blow. long-simmering intrastate jealously, and the uneven distribution of slavery in the the war itself was "total" or even "brutal.". In move and countermove, the horsemen were the eyes and ears of the army. manifested in several illuminating ways that not only called forth the that Jackson so aggressively seized in the Valley Campaign of 1862, in which Jackson embarked upon an intense and dizzying campaign that remains a model of maneuver warfare, and is still studied by military professionals today. wider than twenty-five miles. Union chose to take away enemy advantages rather than claim its own. HISTORICAL MAP | Map of McDowell, Virginia and vicinity circa 1862. In, Anderson, P. C. "Shenandoah Valley during the Civil War. But by the spring of 1862, Jackson was reinforced and mustered a small army of around 5,000 dedicated men ready to defend the lower Valley. It also gained security for Washington D.C. from Confederate operations in the Shenandoah Valley. Likewise, Union troops in the upper Valley were on the flank of Confederates defending central Virginia. The Valley, autumn of 1864—a campaign that culminated in what residents called "the For the effort to capture Richmond. Map it>>. Help save a crucial 22-acre tract on the battlefield where 14 African American soldiers earned the highest military honor in the land. Help preserve American history forever with your tax-deductible year-end gift today! His movements tied down 70,000 Union soldiers, a force four times larger than his own. historian has suggested that the Valley possessed a revitalizing power for The 140-page journal also reviews nine recent books related to the Shenandoah Valley’s Civil War era story. Early’s Confederate Army of the Valley ceased to be a viable force, giving the Union a free hand in the Shenandoah. "Stonewall" Jackson from relative obscurity to the first rank of Southern generals. Contributed by Peter Cozzens. Fearing that Fremont and Banks would unite against him, Jackson proposed to first strike west against Fremont in the Allegheny Mountains, then turn his attention to Banks. His cavalry leader, however, the dashing but inexperienced Col. Turner Ashby, underestimated the strength of the remaining Union division in Winchester, reporting it to be only a brigade. He sent Jubal Early's corps to sweep Union forces from the Valley and, if possible, to menace Washington, D.C., hoping to compel Grant to dilute his forces against Lee around Petersburg, Virginia. Jackson’s marching and fighting had nearly worn out his men. gave to one side were reflected in the advantages it offered the other. Ulysses S. Grant sent feisty General Philip Sheridan to wrest control of the Shenandoah Valley … debilitating mistrust among erstwhile neighbors; and plethoric incidents of theft, The NPS operates an info center with displays on the history of the Shenandoah Valley and the Civil War, including a fiber optic map program demonstrating the Battle of Cedar Creek. In early June, 1862, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. This final campaign in the valley required every soldier to attack or defend, as the life of the Confederacy was at stake. Reinforcements on both sides constantly flowed from east to west and back again. is the northern part of the Great Valley of Virginia, approximately a 140-mile state of West Virginia. The Shenandoah Valley Campaign, conducted from February to June 1862 during the American Civil War (1861–1865), catapulted Confederate general Thomas J. Confederate soldiers and civilians alike. In Virginia, the situation appeared equally grim, as the western part of the state had fallen under Union control. Part of the American Civil War. The Shenandoah Valley in As Jackson withdrew up the Valley after Kernstown, Banks’ army at Winchester was reinforced and followed the Confederates south. A reenanctment of the battle takes place every October. Edged by the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Allegheny Mountain range to the west, the Shenandoah River and its tributaries nourished some 2,000 farms by 1860. The 1862 battle of Shenandoah Valley ranks as one of the grandest masterpieces of military history. Those advantages transposed Confederate ones. Divisions of the American Battlefield Trust: The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Despite its Confederate identity, however, the Shenandoah Valley was home to a In six small engagements—at Kernstown, McDowell, Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys, … The forks of the Shenandoah River flow northward to County to Woodstock in Shenandoah County and accomplished first in Virginia what William T. carry their own provender, Sheridan claimed to have slaughtered thousands of "Stonewall" Jackson and Turner Ashby; in fact, one That mythology would survive Sheridan and even the war. Donations to the Trust are tax deductible to the full extent allowable under the law. strategically important Valley was the site of two major campaigns and numerous For 11 weeks, Jackson avoided efforts by three Federal commanders to trap and destroy his smaller force. A second Union army under historical controversy. The Union Army of the Shenandoah under Major General Philip Sheridan with over 39,000 men, against the Confederate Army of the Valley under Lieutenant General Jubal Early with over 15,000 men. Further, as the so-called "Granary of the Confederacy"—the name Confederate victory. Early mistook this limited action to mean that Sheridan was afraid to fight and he left his army spread out from Martinsburg to Winchester. Jackson marched his army up and down the Shenandoah Valley for ten weeks. Others insist that the Shenandoah Valley's abundance has been “Stonewall” Jackson, commander of the Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1862. Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan was given command of the Army of the Shenandoah and sent to the Shenandoah Valley to deal with the Confederate threat of Lt. Gen. Jubal A. the Confederacy" was largely stripped of its resources by late 1862. Click to donate now. Confederate nationalism. Born in Virginia, Jackson had taught for ten years at the Virginia Military Academy in Lexington by the time war broke out in 1861. Winchester, at the head of the Valley and the Shenandoah's most Jackson’s objective was the strategic bridge over the South Fork of the Shenandoah River at Port Republic: Confederate control of the bridge would prevent the two Union columns from joining each other at the south end of Massanutten. important town, was said to have changed hands more than seventy times. Returning to the Valley after Manassas, Jackson maneuvered his small force between Winchester and the Potomac River, occasionally skirmishing with Union forces and menacing the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between Romney and Harper’s Ferry. The United States presidential elections were just three weeks away, and the tremendous morale boost of the dramatic victory helped give Lincoln a landslide victory. Jackson ceded the lower Valley to Banks, who occupied Winchester on March 12. Many are also open to visitors by national, state and local battlefield park organizations. Winter was harsh on Jackson’s ill-supplied men, several hundred were lost to disease or transfers. Taking heed of Ulysses S. Grant's mandate to The September 1864 combat was the largest, longest, and bloodiest battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. mythic, arcadian identity of the Shenandoah Valley had taken such deep root. The Third Battle of Winchester was the largest and costliest battle ever fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Jackson was outnumbered and outmaneuvered during the battle, his only loss of the campaign. behind by ravenous partisans and guerrillas who disrupted his supply lines, chose to leave the valley and “Stonewall” Jackson’s 1862 Valley Campaign was bold in strategy and tactics. importance: it could be used as a staging area into Unionist east Tennessee, On two other notable occasions, the Gettysburg Campaign of 1863 and Jubal A. On May 15, 1864, a small Confederate force Jackson and his “foot cavalry” marched 670 miles in one 48-day period and fought five pitched battles. farming implements [and] over seventy mills filled with flour and wheat.". Early got off to a good start… Military action in the Valley was always a counterweight to the campaigns fought between the Potomac and the James. Frederick and Clarke Counties September 19, 1864 Outcome: Union Victory. moving up the Valley all the way to Lexington, where on June 12 Hunter burned VMI Guided and self-guided tours, and interpretive ranger … Late in the 1862 Valley Campaign, Gen. Stonewall Jackson’s army was pursued south by two Federal forces on either side of Massanutten Mountain. Its northeast-southwest axis pointed like a dagger into the heart of western Maryland and central Pennsylvania. and contain the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. After Hunter's Raid. Union. contradictions in its idyllic identity, but paradoxically may have fed and With Banks’ army still heavily damaged, Fremont’s army to the west and a division under Brig. March–June, 1862. factors that ultimately explain why the Union won and the Confederacy lost the war. Indeed, Yet, Jackson’s audacity worried President Abraham Lincoln, who withheld a division from McClellan’s army and returned Banks to the Valley. especially at Washington, D.C., only sixty miles from Harpers Ferry. The forks of the Shenandoah River flow northward to join above Massanutten Mountaina massive topog… retreat into West Virginia. To protect Washington, D.C. from Jackson’s threat, McClellan ordered Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks to secure the northern (or lower) end of the Valley. In 1864, Union and Confederate armies once again moved through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. as the "Granary of the Confederacy," it was considered the very heart of the South. Railroads crisscrossed the Valley and its rivers, so towns like Staunton, Front Royal and Martinsburg became important transportation centers. His movement toward the Potomac River dangerously stretched and exposed his supply lines. B. Jackson proved that Confederate troops had a better understanding of geography, C. Jackson proved … considerable population of Unionists, pacifists, and free blacks during the As the Those associations were given vital force in the war's The Battle of Shenandoah was actually a series of Civil War battles fought in the Shenandoah Valley during 1864. Eight U.S. Presidents were born in Virginia – Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Harrison, Tyler, Taylor and Wilson. Confederate control and made possible Early's raid on Washington in July. "Stonewall" Jackson had in his successful 1862 Valley campaign. movement, though unsustainable, brought to a head three summers of frustration in After that, the centre of attention moved north. for the Union and defeat for the Confederacy were all but assured. Sheridan defeated Early at the Third Battle of Winchester and at Fisher's Hill arcadian: admirers called it a place of unrivaled beauty, pastoral tranquility, Union war efforts that winter and spring had lead to significant gains along the Atlantic seaboard and Mississippi River (including the capture of New Orleans). join above Massanutten Mountain—a massive topographical feature that divides the "Stonewall" Jackson concentrated his army east of the South Fork of the Shenandoah River near Port Republic and attacked the brigades of Brig. Turning north towards Banks, encamped around Strasburg, Jackson sidestepped the Yankee defenders there and on May 23 captured Front Royal at the edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains, cutting Banks off from the east. Because the Valley's direction is On June 8, Confederate troops under Gen. Richard S. Ewell defeated Union Gen. John C. Frémont at Cross Keys. make the Shenandoah Valley so desolate that crows flying over it would have to Virginia Military Institute Military Institute in Lexington turned back the first Union offensive of the spring by high command was slow to use its advantages. general Sheridan, who replaced Hunter in August with orders to "follow [Early] to Immediately, Jackson saw an opportunity to recapture the town he had reluctantly evacuated. Moving rapidly up the Valley Pike, Jackson struck at the Yankee defenders on March 23 at the First Battle of Kernstown. 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