A few chemicals that are handled in chemical factories – such as powerful oxidising agents, strong caustic alkalis, bromine and wet chlorine – still pose severe problems for general-purpose resins. The hybrid materials based on polymers and different inorganic nanostructures like natural or synthetic clay (MMT, hectorite, saponite, layered double hydroxide), graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic nanoparticles exhibit remarkable properties such as high drug stability, controlled drug release profile, enhanced drug bioavailability, and pharmacological activity [52–54]. It is only a matter of time before the civil engineering community becomes comfortably familiar with the behavior and specific failure modes of these materials and their applications in structural engineering, and have at their disposal comprehensive standards that provide proper procedures for safe and reliable design practices. What do DNA, a plastic bottle, and wood all have in common? Nearly all the deformation due to contact or sliding takes place in the polymer, and the surface finish of the counterface has a strong influence on the mechanisms of the resulting wear. [86, 87] where a similar sensor was fabricated directly on a flexible catheter and piezoelectric mode was used for pressure measurement. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, and they constitute the basis of certain minerals and human-made materials, such as paper and plastics. The polymers also have potential as efficient hosts for encapsulation of various drugs, hormones, proteins, peptides, antibodies, and nucleic acids [25–28]. HalliwellS. Polymers. These fast and noncontact NDT methods will soon become an essential tool for damage assessment and for condition evaluation of existing structures. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Bug holes and voids are to be filled with epoxy putty. The most common “backbones” for polymers are chains of carbon or silicon, each of which can bond to four other atoms. The different fabrication processes for biomedical devices were touched upon. It is recommended that surface preparation be accomplished using abrasive or water-blasting techniques, and all contaminants that could interfere with the bond between the FRP system and concrete substrate should be removed. Plastics and rubbers are widely used in industrial applications; as piping systems for chemicals, transport hoses, conveyor belts, tanks, membranes and a large number of other products. These include for example lightness, low cost, ease of manufacturing, and high versatility. 1.1). Polymer applications include biomedical and biomimetic applications such as drug delivery systems, biosensor devices, polymer-based bone grafts, fillings for teeth, dressings for cuts, biopolymers in molecular recognition, cosmetics, angioplasty and vascular stents, for catheters, in dialysis, ventricular assist devices and artificial heart valves, skin repair, and tissue engineering (Fig. All rights reserved. They are cheap, mechanically strong, and biocompatible for many applications. 2. consumer science :- plastic containers of all shapes and sizes are light weight and economically less expensive than the more traditional containers. Polymers encompass a broad category of large molecules created by the bonding of many similar constituent molecules. Their application allows to save energy (lighter cars and planes, thermally insulated buildings), protect food and drinking water (packaging), save land and reduce use of fertilizers (synthetic fibres), preserve other materials (coatings), protect and save lifes (hygiene, medical … Fig. FRP applications in civil engineering have advanced significantly since their introduction. In the same way the atoms within the polymer are bonded to each … Polymers are a highly versatile class of material which are found in all areas of engineering from avionics to biomedical devices and the development and implementation of these rely on polymer applications and data provided through rigorous testing. The application of polymers are divided into various types of fields: Agricultural field: Mulching films, green house films are the best examples for the polymer films. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. For each application, the requirements for properties are specific and there are a number of ways to meet the requirements, such as mixing polymers with various types of additives, blending two or more polymers, combining polymers with particulate or fibrous This review article focuses on conducting polymers and their applications. These problems were overcome by Sharma et al. In contrast, Chunyan et al. Phys. The Navy also makes use of polymers in more critical and demanding applications, such as in load-bearing polymeric matrix composites, special coatings for signature control, coatings for corrosion reduction in waste-holding tanks, fuel storage tanks, and metal pipe linings, and so on, where polymers are often applied as part of a technology package to meet the needed performance criteria. Society benefits across the board—in health, medicine, clothing, transportation, housing, defense, energy, electronics, employment, and trade. PVDF is an ideal biomaterial because it is nontoxic, inert, resistant to water absorption (absorbs < 0.04% by weight), biocompatible [82] and clean-room friendly. Dome and bump-shaped PVDF-TrFE based piezoelectric tactile sensor modules for smart catheters. This developing idea is likely to grow rapidly in the near future, resulting in more efficient and sustainable structures. The composition and properties of a series of sheath/core composite polypropylene nonwoven fibres with different PCM contents have also been studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature sensors.14 Coatings for textiles include wet microspheres dispersed through either a polymer binder, a surfactant, a dispersant, an antifoam agent or a polymer mixture such as acrylic, polyurethane, etc. Interests: polymers from renewable resources; synthesis of functional polymers; structure–property relationships; novel polymeric materials of controlled biodegradability; application of mass spectrometry techniques to the structural study of synthetic polymers at the molecular level When working under heavy weather conditions, slips and falls are much more of a liabilty. Damage tolerance, for example, is of paramount importance for the use of polymers in structural components, and specifications define the length of time that structures under load must be able to resist fire with no “holing” or collapse. For example, a lower-weight superstructure and hull mass would result in a lighter, smaller, and more stable vessel. I.M. Polymer-based micro- and nanoparticles are attractive organic hosts with tuned features (e.g., controlled particle size, specific surface, porosity, and reactivity), widely used for the encapsulation of drugs to reduce the unpleasant taste of drugs, protect the API from enzymatic degradation or pH variations, and improve the drug loading (encapsulation efficiency) and drug release profile [29]. For implantable applications, polymer-based piezoelectric devices are commonly used because of their mechanical flexibility. The drug release profile of polymeric micro/nanoparticles can be improved by the incorporation of different nanostructured agents like MMT or mesoporous silica within the polymer matrix [11,33–35]. Appendix A: Current and Promising Polymer Research Topics, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Appendix B: Present and Potential Future Uses of Polymers by the Navy. A composite structure embedded with intelligent sensors that monitor and respond to the structural health is forthcoming. In addition, this type of organic host can penetrate microcapillaries and therefore can go through the blood-brain barrier due to the small size of particles [30–32]. Stimuli-responsive polymers are another class of suitable organic hosts widely used to build “smart” targeted delivery systems with a triggered release of bioactive substances. Microscopic spheres that contain colour-changing polymers are called photochromic microcapsules or thermochromic microcapsules. These special macromolecular compounds that change their properties to external stimuli (e.g., temperature and pH variations, light effect (laser triggered drug release)) include thermoresponsive polymers, pH-responsive polymers, and photo- and redox responsive systems [38]. Ready to take your reading offline? These microscopic spheres containing PCM are called PCM-microcapsules. The polymeric excipients are inactive compounds that play an important role in the formulation of drug products. In the pharmaceutical field, the biopolymers are also involved in the synthesis of “Prodrugs”, conjugates of drugs (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) with macromolecular compounds developed to (1) improve the water solubility of drugs, (2) protect and preserve drugs during circulation, (3) optimize pharmacokinetics profiles and biodistribution (enhance the bioavailability and prolonged plasma half-life) of APIs by increasing their hydrodynamic volume, (4) prevent/reduce aggregation and immunogenicity, and (5) induce a targeted action that favors a selective accumulation/transport to the targeted organ (solid tumors or tissue) and therefore lower systemic toxicity is achieved [16–18]. properties of polymers. FRP applications in structural engineering have come a long way since their inception about three decades ago. Another concern is smoke and toxic gases liberated by combat-initiated fires, as most fire casualties occur from smoke inhalation and impaired vision that prevent escape. Paints when applied on a structure create barrier between the structural surface and corrosion causing phenomenon. This section of Polymer Applications under Polymers is a right channel to publish all types of applications related to polymeric materials and their composites. A diaphragm made of PVDF is usually used as the sensing element. The PCM fibres are then spun using conventional methods such as dry or wet spinning and extrusion of molten polymer. Gulf wars, and the fire-induced melting of an aluminum-based superstructure on the USS Belknap, a guided-missile cruiser, following a collision with the USS Kennedy, have contributed to this continuing debate. Zhang, Kazunori Hoshino, in Molecular Sensors and Nanodevices (Second Edition), 2019. The surface modification of these polyolefins by various techniques has led to the creation of a large number of biocompatible matrices. They are used in the construction, furniture, electronics, communication, packaging, energy, health care, transportation, and sports & leisure industries, in everything from tractors to detergents to fabrics to aircraft. However, SPC paints were banned worldwide by the International Maritime Organisation in 2003 due to the effect on non-target organisms, resulting in severe deformities in shellfish and the accumulation of tin in ducks, seals and shellfish. Otherwise, the well-informed selection of materials, in consultation with the suppliers and after reference to the relevant data banks, means that problems with chemical attack can be avoided. The selection of a polymer as a suitable excipient is influenced by various criteria like drug solubility, rate of absorption, drug-polymer miscibility and stability. Compared to engineering plastics, the suitability of commodity plastics, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, for biomedical applications is exemplary in the long run. Polymers have many considerable advantages compared to metals and ceramics. There are different types of paints available as per requirements and place of application on ship. Polymers, whether natural or artificial, are big molecules made by linking up smaller repeating chemical units. Share application of polymers on board ship link to this book 's Table of contents, where can... Or transfer coating because polymers are formed is called a monomer with glass-reinforced plastic hulls fabricated under a to... Or wet spinning and extrusion of molten polymer application in biomedical devices and instruments is noteworthy and several discoveries inventions... Many similar constituent molecules ( summarized in Table B.1 ) processes in respiration and photosynthesis small. How they are used encompass a broad category of large molecules created by the FRP and the ability to and! Generation [ 49 ] techniques has led to the increase in PVDF crystallinity in has... 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